DISORDER – Symptoms from the DSM-V
actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence in one or more
of the following ways:
experiencing the traumatic
in person, the event(s) as it
occurred to others.
that the traumatic event(s) occurred
to a close family member or close friend.
In cases of actual or threatened
death of a family member or friend, the event(s) must have been violent or
repeated or extreme exposure to
aversive details of the traumatic event(s) (e.g., first responders collecting human remains; police
officers repeatedly exposed to details of child abuse).
NOTE: Criterion A does
not apply to exposure
through electronic media, television, movies, or pictures, unless exposure is work related.
B. Presence of one (or more) of the following
intrusion symptoms associated with the traumatic event(s), beginning after the
traumatic event(s) occurred.
involuntary, and intrusive
distressing memories of the traumatic event(s).
distressing dreams in which the
content and/or affect of the dream are related to the traumatic event(s).
reactions (e.g., flashbacks) in
which the Individual feels or acts as if the traumatic event(s) were reoccurring.
(Such reactions may occur on a continuum, with the most extreme expression
being a complete loss of
awareness of present surroundings.)
or prolonged psychological distress
at exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic
physiological reactions to internal or
external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event(s).
C. Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated
with the traumatic event(s).
of or efforts to avoid distressing
memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic event(s).
of or efforts to avoid external
reminders (people, places, conversations, activities, objects, situations that arouse distressing
memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic
D. Negative alterations in cognitions and
mood associated with the traumatic event(s), beginning or worsening after the
traumatic event(s) occurred, as evidenced by two
(or more) of the following:
to remember an important aspect of
the traumatic event(s) (typically due to dissociative amnesia and not to other factors such as
head injury, alcohol, or drugs).
and exaggerated negative beliefs
or expectations about oneself, others, or the world (“The world is completely dangerous,”
can be trusted,” “My nervous system is permanently ruined”)
distorted cognitions about the
cause or consequences of the traumatic event(s) that lead the individual to blame
himself/herself or others.
negative emotional state (fear,
horror, guilt, anger or shame).
diminished interest or participation
in significant activities.
of detachment or estrangement from
inability to experience positive
emotions (happiness, satisfaction, or loving feelings)
alterations in arousal and reactivity associated with the traumatic event(s)
occurred, as evidenced by two (or more) of the following:
behavior and angry outbursts (with little or no provocation) typically
expressed as verbal or physical aggression
toward people or objects.Reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance,
exaggerated startle response,
problems with concentration, sleep disturbance (difficulty falling or staying
asleep or restless sleep).
F. Duration of the disturbance (Criteria B,
C, D, and E) is more than 1 month.
G. The disturbance causes clinically significant
distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of
H. The disturbance is not attributable to the
physiological effects of a substance
(medication, alcohol) or another medical condition