A Study of Police Suicide in 2008-2016
Girl's Letter to School
Police Suicide - What It ISN'T
Master Police Coaches - Building a Better Cop
PTSD - The "Hidden Injury"
Police Suicide - Making a Difference
The Importance of Therapy
Police Suicide - the SOLUTIONS
Interview with the BOL Chairman
So-Called "Helpers"
2016 Police Suicide Study
Annual Mental Health Checks
Stigma - The Human Stain
2016 Police Suicides: the NSOPS Study
Police Stress vs Trauma--a difference?
Does PTSD Cause Violence? from the Badge of Life
A New Police Suicide Prevention Program for the 21st Century
Police Suicide, Just a Bad Choice?
Chiefs Lead the Way
"Bring a Buddy"
Cumulative PTSD - a Silent Killer
Dealing with a Suicidal Police Officer



A.  Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence in one or more of the following ways:

                1.  Directly experiencing the traumatic event. 

                2.  Witnessing, in person, the event(s) as it occurred to others.

                3.  Learning that the traumatic event(s) occurred to a close family member or close friend.  In cases of actual or threatened death of a family member or friend, the event(s) must have been violent or accidental.

                4.  Experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversive details of the traumatic event(s) (e.g., first responders collecting human remains; police officers repeatedly exposed to details of child abuse).

                NOTE:  Criterion A does not apply to exposure through electronic media, television, movies, or pictures, unless exposure is work related.

B.  Presence of one (or more) of the following intrusion symptoms associated with the traumatic event(s), beginning after the traumatic event(s) occurred.

                1.  Recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive distressing memories of the traumatic event(s).

                2.  Recurrent distressing dreams in which the content and/or affect of the dream are related to the traumatic event(s).

                3.  Dissociative reactions (e.g., flashbacks) in which the Individual feels or acts as if the traumatic event(s) were reoccurring. (Such reactions may occur on a continuum, with the most extreme expression being a complete loss of awareness of present surroundings.)

                4.  Intense or prolonged psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event(s).

                5.  Marked physiological reactions to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the  traumatic event(s).

C.  Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event(s).

                1.  Avoidance of or efforts to avoid distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic event(s).

                2.  Avoidance of or efforts to avoid external reminders (people, places, conversations, activities, objects, situations that arouse distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic event(s).

D.  Negative alterations in cognitions and mood associated with the traumatic event(s), beginning or worsening after the traumatic event(s) occurred, as evidenced by two (or more) of the following:

                1.  Inability to remember an important aspect of the traumatic event(s) (typically due to dissociative amnesia and not to other factors such as head injury, alcohol, or drugs).

                2.  Persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs or expectations about oneself, others, or the world (“The world is completely dangerous,” “No one can be trusted,” “My nervous system is permanently ruined”)

                3.  Persistent, distorted cognitions about the cause or consequences of the traumatic event(s) that lead the individual to blame himself/herself or others.

                4.  Persistent negative emotional state (fear, horror, guilt, anger or shame).

                5.  Markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities.

                6.  Feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.

                7.  Persistent inability to experience positive emotions (happiness, satisfaction, or loving feelings)

E.Marked alterations in arousal and reactivity associated with the traumatic event(s) occurred, as evidenced by two (or more) of the following:

                Irritable behavior and angry outbursts (with little or no provocation) typically expressed as verbal or physical  aggression toward people or objects.Reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle  response, problems with concentration, sleep disturbance (difficulty falling or staying asleep or restless sleep).

F.  Duration of the disturbance (Criteria B, C, D, and E) is more than 1 month.

G.  The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

H.  The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance  (medication, alcohol) or another medical condition



See also